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Tendón de Aquiles, punto débil de los deportistas. ¿Mito o realidad?

El tendón de Aquiles conecta los músculos de la pantorrilla con el hueso del talón. Es el mayor de los tendones del cuerpo humano, y también uno de los más gruesos y fuertes. Dado que conecta los músculos de la pierna con el pie, es esencial para el uso de las extremidades inferiores: desde levantar el talón del suelo hasta caminar, correr o ponerse de puntillas, por ejemplo. De hecho, usamos el tendón de Aquiles cada vez que movemos el pie.

La lesión del tendón de Aquiles es muy común en deportistas, ya que la mayoría de deportes exigen un gran trabajo a dicho tendón, habitualmente en circunstancias que pueden hacerlo más vulnerable. El tendón de Aquiles puede verse afectado por diferentes tipos de lesiones, de entre las que podemos destacar las siguientes:

  • Tendinopatía(Tendinitis o Entesitis)
  • Rotura del tendón(la más frecuente)

CAUSAS Y SÍNTOMAS DE LA TENDINOPATÍA

Es una patología causada por el desgaste del tendón, cuyas consecuencias suelen ser  la inflamación, la hinchazón y el dolor en la zona del tendón de Aquiles. El desgaste puede darse por varias causas:

  • Exceso de exigencia física al tendón (estrés repetitivo): se incrementa de modo importante y en un período muy corto la actividad deportiva realizada, que normalmente exige movimientos repetitivos para el tendón, sin dar tiempo a este a habituarse a una mayor exigencia de esfuerzo. Suele ser frecuente en personas que practican deporte solo en momentos puntuales (durante los fines de semana o las vacaciones, por ejemplo).
  • Realización de actividades físicas en las que el tendón de Aquiles resulta particularmente vulnerable: correr en superficies duras (cemento) o bien en superficies muy irregulares (por ejemplo, campo a través) o bien practicar deportes que exijan muchos saltos, como el baloncesto. Como hemos dicho anteriormente, muchos deportistas sufren patologías del tendón de Aquiles: corredores, atletas, jugadores de baloncesto…
  • Artritis:es más habitual en personas de avanzada o mediana edad. La presencia de un espolón en la parte exterior del hueso del talón puede rozar contra el tendón de Aquiles, y el roce continuado puede provocar inflamación.

Una inflamación prolongada del tendón de Aquiles puede llegar a causar la degeneración del tendón, provocándole lesiones microscópicas de forma continuada y la pérdida de estructura. Dicho proceso patológico aumenta la vulnerabilidad del tendón, y podría producirse, en última instancia, su rotura. Sin embargo, no se trata de un hecho frecuente. Como veremos a continuación, la gran mayoría de roturas del tendón de Aquiles se producen de golpe.

Causas y Síntomas de la Rotura del Tendón

La rotura del tendón de Aquiles puede ser parcial -el tendón sigue unido en algún punto, aunque se desgarra parcialmente- o total, mucho más frecuente.

La rotura del tendón de Aquiles puede ser parcial o total

Los síntomas de una rotura parcial del tendón de Aquiles son similares a los citados para la tendinopatía -inflamación, hinchazón y dolor en la zona del tendón de Aquiles- mientras que los de una rotura total suelen ser mucho más severos, e incluyen también, entre otros:

  • Pérdida de fuerza y de movilidad en la zona del talón
  • Incapacidad para ponerse de puntillas
  • Imposibilidad de realizar ciertos movimientos (doblar el pie hacia abajo, darse impulso al caminar o subir escaleras)

 En STM Sport Group, creemos que lo más importante es la salud, es por eso que construimos espacios deportivos, pensando en el deportista y su futuro. 

PISOS EN RESINA DEPORTIVA – GRAMAS SINTÉTICAS – PISOS EN MADERA DEPORTIVA – PISOS EN EPDM – PISOS EN CAUCHO – PISOS REBOTANIÑOS – PISOS PARA GIMNASIOS

 

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